Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma

lymphadenopathy
Ultrasound throat - lymphadenopathy

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma (AILT), aka immunoblastic lymphadenopathy, is an aggressive cancer that originates in the T-cells. It accounts for 1% of all Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas (NHL) and is found mostly in the elderly. Males have a higher incidence than females.

"Angio" is a term that refers to the blood vessels. This cancer is marked by the presence of abnormal blood vessels in affected body parts. AILT typically affects the lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, and bone marrow.

Immunoblasts are immature immune cells. AILT originates in immature T-cells that circulate in the blood.

Diagnosis and Staging

Most patients present with typical lymphoma symptoms, such as fever, night sweats, chills, swollen lymph nodes, and weight loss. Some patients will also have a skin rash. In the later stages, patients may be anemic (low red blood cell and/or hemoglobin count) or have other blood abnormalities, so they’ll experience fatigue as a result.

A lymph node biopsy is used to diagnose the disease, and other follow-up tests like CT scans, PET scans, X-rays, and bone marrow biopsies are done to stage the cancer. Due to the rarity of this disease, concrete staging information is not available.

Treatment

Treament usually begins with steroids to help with inflammation and rashes. After steroid treatment, the CHOP regimen of chemotherapy is usually administered.

In cases of relapse, bone marrow transplants are usually tried.

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